To begin with, descriptive qualities of one’s research professionals by sex was indeed displayed given that rates employing respective 95% confidence interval (CI)

To begin with, descriptive qualities of one’s research professionals by sex was indeed displayed given that rates employing respective 95% confidence interval (CI)

Sociodemographic characteristics provided racial notice-classification (white or low-white elizabeth.grams. black colored, brownish, yellow, otherwise native), host to house (urban or outlying), education (0–4, 5–8, 9–eleven, otherwise ? 12 ages), and you can monthly household income for each and every capita for the tertiles (lowest, center, otherwise highest). The fresh new urban–outlying class was based on the procedures utilized by the newest Brazilian Institute out of Geography and you can Statistics (in the Portuguese, IBGE) during the 2010 population census off administrative restrictions establish because of the regional legislation. Inside for each municipality’s limits, such regional regulations present an imaginary range called “urban fringe”. The new census tracts located from inside the “urban edge” is actually termed metropolitan, whereas the rest of the parts try appointed outlying. Another pointers is acquired courtesy a face-to-deal with interview on participant’s home.

Anthropometric variables

Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight (< 18.5> 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (

Statistical investigation

Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI. Variables with p < 0.20>


Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p < 0.001).

The advantages of one’s research members from the sex is seen inside Desk 1. In both sexes, extremely people were low-white, lived-in brand new area, had 0–cuatro many years of schooling, and you may displayed increased sides width. In regards to the Body mass index, obese is actually the most typical category for men (42.9%), when you find yourself overweight and you may being obese had nearly similar wavelengths for women (36.9% and you can 35.4%, respectively). Of persistent disorder, forty two.1% of users said that have a health analysis regarding arterial blood pressure, 17.4% from all forms of diabetes mellitus, eleven.5% out of osteoporosis, 7.4% out-of heart sickness (angina, myocardial infarction, and center inability), and you can 5.7% off breathing diseases (symptoms of asthma and you will persistent obstructive pulmonary problem).